Course Title: Social and Cultural Change
Dates: 9/11 – 14/12
Professor: Hans Thor Andersen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)

Course summary: This course deals with the social changes, which have been unfolded from the late 1970s and early 1980s: As an effect of major industrial transformation, the hitherto social contract between capital and labour has been undermined. Across the western world the stable income and security provided by wage labour has been eroded due to a qualitative shift at the labour market: No more is full time paid work a guarantee for a decent income level that can keep poverty away. On the contrary, still more people experience modest living conditions despite full time paid work (‘Mcdonaldization’). Moreover, the gap between the elite of the society and the still more abundant poor groups seems rising. A good deal of the marginalised groups now belongs to third world immigrants, which in turn are living in concentrated neighbourhoods. At the same time, a rising diversity is unfolded in terms of life styles and thus further expands the social inequality in society. The specific expression in cities appears most unequal; from the booming cities in Western Europe to the transforming cities of former East Europe. A major theme is the experience of cities, of place and space and its social construction: City identity and the relocation of cultures as well as the formation of new, cross-ethnic cultures are parts of this transformation.

Objectives: The objectives of the course are providing the student with an understanding of the relation between space and place. Further more; to enable the student to discuss e.g. how palace identity is used in current urban planning, how places become meaningful through representations and social praxis and how to define the meaning of place(s) in a so called global era.




Title of lecture

Abstract and readings



H. T. Andersen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)

Class, stratification and social differentiation in the European welfare state

This lecture introduces social differentiation in relation to traditional and newer theory. In particular, the link between social classes and employment categories is a central topic. Moreover, the lecture focuses at the social differentiation under postindustrial conditions – a rising creative/ professional class versus an excluded underclass. Finally, this will be related to the transformation of labour market and welfare states.

Esping-Andersen, G. (1993): Stratification and mobility in post-industrial societies.  Sage International, London. Pp 32 – 57.
Giddens, A. and Diamond, P. (eds): The New Egalitarianism. Polity Press, Cambridge. 2005. pp 8 – 38.
Bradley, H. (1996): Fractured Identities. Changing pattern of Inequality. Polity Press, Cambridge. Pp 45 – 79.



F. Hansen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)

Welfare societies, neoliberalism and the social construction of poverty in Europe.

If you look upon the relative poverty in Europe, the amount of poverty and the social structure of poverty vary among the countries/welfare societies. The map of poverty of Europe has to been regarded a social construction in the sense that differences in labour market and welfare regulation, embedded in national cultures of equality and equal rights, is fundamental mechanisms behind the geographical inequalities at that map. This lecture deals with theories of welfare systems, the neoliberal influence and an analysis of the relationship between inequality/ poverty and welfare regimes.


Esping-Andersen, G. (2000):  Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, in: Pierson & Castels (eds.): The Welfare State. A Reader, pp. 154-168. Polity Press.
Hansen, F. & Silva, C. N. 2000: The transformation of welfare states after World War 2: the cases of Portugal and Denmark, Environment and Society C, pp. 749-759.
Sainsbury, D. 1996:  Gender Equality And Welfare States, pp. 33-46. Cambridge University Press.
Swank, D. 2002: Global Capital, Political Institutions and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States, pp 274-289 (conclusion). Cambridge University Press.
Eurostat:  Statistics in focus.
13/2005 Income Poverty And Social Exclusion in The EU 25, 5 pages
14/2005 Social protection in the European Union, 10  pages
5/2005 In-Work Poverty, 10 pages
16/2004 Poverty and social exclusion in EU, 10 pages
A lot of other Eurostat publications can be relevant



B. Mazanti (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)

Place, space and identity

The aim is to discuss the relation between space and place, e.g. how place identity is used in current urban planning, how places become meaningful through representations and social praxis and how to define the meaning of place(s) in a so called global era. 

Cresswell, Tim (2004) "Place - a short introduction". Blackwell Publishing: Page 1-12 & page 53 - 79.
Mazanti, Birgitte & Pløger, J. (2003) "Community planning – from politicised places to lived spaces". In Journal of Housing and the Built Environment nr. 18: Page 309-337.



G. Wêclawowicz (Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland)

Social and cultural aspects the formation of the post-socialist cities  Experience from Poland

The transitional societies

Weclawowicz, Grzegorz (1996) "Urban Poland". In Weclawowicz G.: Contemporary Poland Space and Society, UCL Press, London
Weclawowicz, Grzegorz (1996) "The social consequence of transformation". In Weclawowicz G.: Contemporary Poland Space and Society, UCL Press, London
Stenning, Alison (2004) "The transformation of life, work and community in post-socialist Europe: a westerner studies Nowa Huta". In Geographia Polonica, n.78, issue 1
Stenning, Alison "Where is the post-socialist working class? Working class lives in the space of (post-)socialism"


S. Frank (Humboldt University at Berlin, Germany)

Gender and cities

The (changing) relationship of gender, work and (urban/regional) space.

1. Doreen Massey: ‘Space, Place and Gender’ from Space, Place and Gender
(1994); also printed in Jane Rendell et al. (Eds.) Gender Space Architecture. An interdisciplinary introduction, London/ NY (Routledge) 2000, pp. 128-133.
2. Susanne Frank: ‘Gender Trouble in Paradise. Suburbia Reconsidered’, in: Judith DeSena / Ray Hutchison (Eds.) Gender in an Urban World – Special Issue of Research in Urban Sociology, Vol. 9 / 2006, London  (Elsevier)
3. Liz Bondi and Hazel Christie: 'Working out the urban: gender relations in
the city', in: Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson (Eds) The Blackwell Companion
to the City. Blackwell 2000, pp. 292-306.



Sharon Zukin (Brooklyn College and Graduate School, City University of New York, USA)

The Cultures of Cities

Required reading:

Sharon Zukin, "Destination: Culture. The Limits of Authenticity in a Globalizing World", Paper prepared for Thematic Session, “The Arts and Globalizing Cities", World Congress of Sociology, Durban, July 2006.

Further reading:

Sharon Zukin, "Whose Culture? Whose Cities?", chapter 1 in "The Cultures of Cities", Oxford and Cambridge MA, Blackwell, 1995.





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